Python Operators

Python Operators:
  • Operators are special symbols that used to perform operations on the variables and the values.
  • Consider an expression 10 + 20 = 30. Here, + is an operator that performs addition. 10 and 20 are called operands and 30 is the output of the operation.
  • In general, the operand is a variable or a value that the operator operates on.
  • Most commonly used operator groups in python language are listed below
      • Arithmetic Operators
      • Comparison/Relational Operators
      • Logical Operators
      • Assignment Operators
      • Bitwise Operators
      • Identity Operators
      • Membership Operators
  • Let's have a look at each operator with their syntax.
Arithmetic Operators:
  • Arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.,
Operator
Name
Description
Syntax Example
+
Addition
Add two operands
a + b
-
Subtraction
Subtract right operand from the left operand
a - b
*
Multiplication
Multiply two operands
a * b
/
Division
Divide left operand by right operand (result – float)
a / b
%
Modulus
Returns the remainder of the division of left operand by the right operand
a % b
//
Floor Division
Returns Quotient of the division of left operand by right operand (result – the whole number)
a // b
**
Exponentiation
Exponent – Left operand raised to the power of right operand
a ** b

  • Example: Arithmetic operators in Python
Arithmetic operators Python
Output

Comparison/Relational Operators:
  • Comparison operators are used to compare two values and returns either True or False based on the condition.
Operator
Name
Description
Syntax Example
==
Equal
Returns True – If both operands are equal
a == b
!=
Not Equal
Returns True – If both operands are not equal
a != b
> 
Greater than
Returns True – If the left operand is greater than right operand
a > b
< 
Less than
Returns True – If the left operand is less than the right operand
a < b
>=
Greater than or equal to
Returns True – If the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand
a >= b
<=
Less than or equal to
Returns True – If the left operand is lesser than or equal to the right operand
a <= b

  • Example: Comparison operators in Python
Comparison operators Python
Output
Logical Operators:
  • Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements or variables or values using Logical AND, Logical OR, and Logical Not.
Operator
Name
Description
Syntax Example
and
Logical AND
Returns True – If both operands are true
a and b
or
Logical OR
Returns True – If either of the operands is true
a or b
not
Logical NOT
Returns True – If the operand is false
not a

  • Example: Logical operators in Python
Logical Operators Python
Output
Assignment Operators:
  • Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.
Operator
Name
Description
Syntax Example
=
Assign
Assign the value of right operand to left operand
c = a + b
+=
Add and Assign
Add right operand with left operand and then assign to left operand
a+=b --> a = a+b
-=
Subtract and Assign
Subtract right operand from left operand and then assign to left operand
a-=b --> a = a-b
*=
Multiply and Assign
Multiply right operand with left operand and then assign to left operand
a*=b --> a = a*b
/=
Divide and Assign
Divide left operand with right operand and then assign to left operand
a/=b --> a = a/b
%=
Modulus and Assign
Takes remainder using left and right operand and then assign to left operand
a%=b --> a = a%b
//=
Floor Division and Assign
Divide left operand with right operand and then assign floor value to left operand
a//=b --> a = a//b
**=
Exponent and Assign
Finds exponent value using operands and then assign value to left operand
a**=b --> a = a**b
&=
Bitwise AND and Assign
Perform Bitwise AND on operands and then assign value to left operand
a&=b --> a = a&b
|=
Bitwise OR and Assign
Perform Bitwise OR on operands and then assign value to left operand
a|=b --> a = a|b
^=
Bitwise XOR and Assign
Perform Bitwise XOR on operands and then assign value to left operand
a^=b --> a = a^b
>>=
Bitwise right shift and Assign
Perform Bitwise right shift on operands and then assign value to left operand
a>>=b --> a = a>>b
<<=
Bitwise left shift and Assign
Perform Bitwise left shift on operands and then assign value to left operand
a<<=b --> a = a<<b

Bitwise Operators:
  • Bitwise operators work on bits and perform bit by bit operation.
  • For example, 4 is 100 in binary, and 7 is 111.
Operator
Name
Description
Syntax Example
&
Bitwise AND
The operator sets bit result to 1 if both operand bits are 1
x & y
|
Bitwise OR
The operator sets bit result to 1 if one of the two operand bits is 1
x | y
~
Bitwise NOT
Inverts all the bits
~ x
^
Bitwise XOR
The operator sets bit result to 1 if only one of the two operand bits is 1, not both
x ^ y
>> 
Bitwise right shift
Left operand value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand
x >>
<< 
Bitwise left shift
Left operand value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand
x <<

  • Example: Bitwise operators in Python
Bitwise operator Python
Output
Identity Operators:
  • Identity operators are used to compare the memory location of the objects.
  • If two variables are equal in value, it doesn't imply that they are identical.
Operator
Description
Syntax Example
is
Returns True – If both variables refer to the same object
x is y
 is not
Returns True – If both variables do not refer to the same object
x is not y

  • Example: Identity operators in Python
Identity Operator Python
Output
Membership Operators:
  • Membership operators are used to test whether a value or a variable is found in a collection sequence ( list, string, tuple, set, and dictionary).
  • In a dictionary, we can check only the presence of the key, not the value.

Operator
Description
Syntax Example
In
Returns True – If value/variable is found in the specified sequence.
x in y
 not in
Returns True – If value/variable is not found in the specified sequence.
x not in y

  • Example: Membership operators in Python
Membership Operator Python
Output

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